Engineering As Career

Engineering Career Options

Engineering as a career has attracted students in India in a big way and a large number of aspirants taking the engineering exams are testimony to this fact. Engineering is a multi-disciplined field with new disciplines and branches being added with the advancement of science and technology.

Though a large number of students appear for different engineering exams like JEE Main (previously AIEEE), JEE Advanced (previously IIT-JEE), BITSAT, SRMJEE, VITEEE, but not many are aware about the various career options that engineering as a profession offers. The basic engineering disciplines include Mechanical, Chemical, Civil, Electrical and Aerospace engineering.
With the development of technology new engineering disciplines like biotechnology, computer, automobile engineering and genetic engineering have gained immense popularity among students. Here is a compilation of the wide array of career options that the field of engineering has to offer:

Pros and Cons of being an Engineer


Irrespective of trends in the markets, engineers are always in demand especially those in electrical, civil, mechanical and computer
Growth opportunities as India is an open economy with multinationals opening their offices in India
Indian engineers are good in their logical and mathematical skills. Their demand is always high in the US and other foreign countries


Demanding career as one might have to stay for long hours in the office till they fix the problem.
One might have to stay away from home for projects that require onsite engineer
Though all good institutes have campus placements, yet not all engineers are well placed
Today, MBA has almost become synonymous with engineering. Most engineers opt for MBA after engineering and therefore demand for engineers without an MBA has dropped sharply


Entry level engineers from reputed institutes can expect a good pay package starting at Rs 30, 000. However, salaries vary form industry to industry. A mid-level engineer can earn anything between Rs 50, 000 to Rs 60, 000. If you are armed with an MBA from a reputed institutes, your perks can reach any limit. It can even reach Rs1.5 lakh per month for an MBA from a reputed institute.

Is B.Tech different from BE?

There is no difference between B.Tech and BE. Universities offering other degrees along with engineering awarded students with a BE (Bachelor of Engineering) degree and institutes constituted for only Engineering studies named their degree as B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology).

Engineering Career Options in India

  • Agricultural Engineer
  • Aeronautical Engineer
  • Architect
  • Automobile Engineer
  • Biomedical Engineer
  • Biotechnologist
  • Broadcast Engineer
  • Communication Engineer
  • Ceramic Engineer
  • Chemical Engineer
  • Civil Engineer
  • Computer Engineer
  • Environmental Engineer
  • Electrical Engineer
  • Earthquake Engineer
  • Electronics Engineer
  • Fire Engineer
  • Genetic Engineer
  • Industrial & Production Engineer
  • Instrumentation Engineer
  • Marine Engineer
  • Mechanical Engineer
  • Metallurgical Engineer
  • Mining Engineer
  • Material Engineer
  • Nuclear Engineer
  • Ocean Engineer
  • Petroleum Engineer
  • Plastic Technologist
  • Polymer Engineer
  • Rubber Technologist
  • Space Technologist
  • Textile Engineer
  • Job Profile

  • Civil Engineers are concerned with planning, investigation, survey, design, supervision, and all work connected with construction. They specialize in structural engineering, water management engineering, highway engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, or environmental engineering
  • Mechanical Engineers design, operate and maintain machines, components, machine tools, manufacturing systems and processes, components of thermal power stations, solar energy, air conditioning and refrigeration and industrial engineering. They are involved in both the fundamental and applied aspects of these areas
  • Electrical Engineers are concerned with the generation, distribution, use of electrical power, control and instrumentation. They work with equipment that produces and distributes electricity such as generators, transmission lines, transformers, lighting and wiring in buildings. They design electric motors, machinery and ignition systems which are required by automobiles, aircrafts and all kinds of motorized vehicles and equipments
  • Aerospace Engineers work in aeronautical and spacecraft engineering. They design, analyze, construct, develop, test and manufacture commercial and military aircrafts, missiles, and spacecrafts
  • Agricultural Engineers design and develop farm implements and machineries, and equipments used during production, processing, transportation and storage of agricultural commodities. Field engineers deal with irrigation, drainage and land resource planning and execution. Service engineers are engaged in sale servicing, repairing and installation of farm machinery
  • Automobile Engineers are concerned with the design, development, repair and manufacture of automobiles. They may also specialize in automobile design
  • Biomedical Engineers are scientists who using the principles of engineering and life sciences conduct research on the biological aspects of human and animal life. The products biomedical engineers have invented have revolutionized the field of medicine. Some examples are the artificial heart and other artificial organs, prosthetics (artificial limbs), use of lasers in surgery, cryosurgery, ultrasonics and the use of computers in diagnosis
  • Ceramic Engineers deal with inorganic and non-metallic materials used in industrial applications. They carry out research, design machinery and processing methods and develop new ceramic materials and products
  • Chemical Engineers combine principles of chemistry and engineering to solve problems in the production of chemicals. Chemical engineers are concerned with designing, supervision, construction, installation and operation of equipment, plants and works in which substances undergo physical and chemical changes. The chemical technologists deal with the development and operation of processes for production purposes
  • Computer Engineers design, manufacture, and maintain computer hardware and computer based information and control systems
  • Environmental Engineers use knowledge from several disciplines to protect the quality of the human environment – its air , water and land. This field embraces a wide field, from the ocean depths where marine resources must be preserved to the depletion of ozone layers in the upper atmosphere which poses a threat to life on earth
  • Electronic Engineers are concerned with electronic components, integrated circuits and microprocessors. They design , fabricate, test, maintain and supervise the manufacture of electronic equipments
  • Energy Engineers are concerned with the use , production, distribution, conversion and conservation of energy
  • Industrial Engineers work in manufacturing or industrial production. Choosing machinery and equipments, planning industrial layout, organization of assembly line , quality control, distribution and inventory control is devised by industrial engineers
  • Instrumentation (Production) Engineers design, construct and maintain instruments and instrumentation units required for industrial processes
  • Marine Engineers design, research, survey, install and maintain marine vessels of all types and sizes. The job of running, maintenance and repair of engine rooms of sailing vessels both merchant and navy is carried out by marine engineers. Marine engineers also work as shore engineers to install , maintain equipments used during loading and unloading of cargo and other dock machinery
  • Metallurgical and Materials Engineers develop new types of metal alloys. Metallurgical engineers work in chemical, physical or mechanical metallurgy. Material engineers develop materials according to specifications and test and evaluate them
  • Mining Engineers are involved with the location, extraction, and preparation of minerals used in manufacturing industries. They design underground and open pit mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. They work with geologists, metallurgists, on reclamation projects as well as in projects related to water and air pollution
  • Telecommunication Engineers deal with communication systems e.g. cables, radio, satellite, communications, TV, Radar, navigational communications equipments, all types of information and transmission networks
  • Microelectronics engineers are involved in the design, development, fabrication and testing of new electronic circuitry. Modern electronic circuits are built on printed circuit or hybrid boards carrying the latest in chip technology. Microelectronics engineers undertaking the logic design, often work together with software engineers who write the software. This process needs careful planning to decide which function will be achieved through the hardware
  • Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. They design , develop monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity. They may work on nuclear fuel cycle,- production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy- or on fusion energy. Nuclear engineers specialize in the development of nuclear weapons or in industrial and medical uses of radioactive materials e.g. equipment to help diagnose and treat medical problems
  • Employment Opportunities

  • Aerospace/Aeronautical EngineeringHindustan Aeronautics Limited employs aerospace engineers. Employment in research and development is offered by the Defence Services DRDO for missile development, Indian Space Research Organization, government laboratories and organizations concerned with the aviation industry, i.e., Air India, Indian Air Lines etc.
  • Agricultural Engineering – Central and State Government Departments of agriculture and agricultural engineering, agro industries, minor irrigation corporations, agricultural machinery manufacturing organizations, tea gardens, National Seeds Corporation, Food Corporation of India, National Dairy Development Board, Dairy and Food Industries, Nationalized Banks, Agricultural Financial Organizations, Agricultural Research Organizations, Agricultural universities and voluntary organizations employ agricultural engineers
  • Automobile Engineering – Automobile manufacturing industries, defense services offer employment
  • Biomedical Engineering – Biomedical engineers are researchers and hence they work in laboratories to research, design and fabricate materials used in medical diagnosis and treatment
  • Ceramic Engineering – Glass, cement, electronic, ceramic, electrical industries employ ceramic engineers. Besides specific engineering opportunities ceramic engineers also work in research in industries dealing with ceramic equipments and products
  • Chemical Engineering – The application of chemical engineering is in diverse industries – e.g. in industries manufacturing paints, dyes, varnishes, drugs, acids, petroleum, fertilizers, foods, dairy products. They may work in textile or plastic industry or even in glass or rubber industry. The application of this branch is extensive
  • Civil Engineering – Civil engineers are employed in the public and private sectors in large numbers in all branches of design, construction, maintenance of roads, highways, bridges, dams, canals, docks, airports, housing complexes and in environment management etc.
  • Environmental Engineering – Environmental engineers are required by government and industry both to monitor and control ongoing pollution and to anticipate and deal with the likely impact on the environment of proposed new projects – whether it be the construction of a new dam, a hotel or an industrial unit. Environmental Engineers are employed with industries dealing with recycled products and waste management
  • Electrical Engineering – Electrical engineers find employment with organizations dealing with generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electrical energy. They work in the manufacturing industry, design electrical machinery and equipment, and oversee their operation. They are employed in high powered electrical generating stations, design and construction of power plants, and in industries manufacturing industrial machinery
  • Electronic Engineering – Electronic engineers are employed in industries manufacturing electronic equipment, research and development, and in places where electronic equipments are extensively used, e.g. television and radio, aerospace industry, automobile industry, computer based industries. Marketing and sales jobs for electronic products are another option. Electronic engineers who specialize in biomedical equipment find employment with bio-engineering industries
  • Energy Engineering – Energy engineers find opportunities in major industries and organizations concerned with research and development
  • Industrial Engineering – Industrial engineers find employment with production industries particularly where the concern is plant efficiency, cost effective operating methods and quality control
  • Instrumentation/Production Engineering – The demand for instrumentation engineer comes from user industries such as steel, chemical, fertilizer, refineries, power industry etc. as well as from research and development organization, of defense, government and private sector
  • Mechanical Engineering – Mechanical engineers are employed in almost every sector of the industry. Some of the largest areas of employment are machine tools, railway engineering, aerospace, the automobile industry and power plants
  • Metallurgical Engineering – Metallurgists are employed in research laboratories, industries and plants extracting and processing metals like iron and steel, nickel, tin, copper, zinc, aluminum and brass etc., in metallurgical industries like Foundries and rolling mills, in fabrication industries
  • Microelectronic Engineering – The main areas of work are in aerospace, including aircraft, satellites, space systems, guided weapons; computers, information technology, and telecommunications; consumer electronics, such as washing machines and microwave ovens; medical electronics for use in diagnosis, monitoring and care of patients; etc.
  • Nuclear Engineering – Nuclear engineers work primarily in research. Nuclear engineers also find employment in nuclear power plants, defense and nuclear installations, with defense manufacturers, or with nuclear power equipment manufacturers
  • Mining Engineering – Mining engineers are employed as engineers in mines, minerals development corporation and mining departments of the union and state governments
  • Telecommunication Engineering – Telecommunication engineers work with the defense services, in the broadcasting sector, electronic/mass communication sector, with the Government as well as with the manufacturing industry